Научно-технологический парк

Витебского государственного технологического университета
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Technology and equipment for waste of light industry

Matveev Andrey, Logunova Alexandra, Matveev Konstantin, Egorova Еlena
Republican Unitary Enterprise Innovation «Scientific and Technological Park of the Vitebsk State Technological University»

Processing of industrial wastes is very important problem. In Belarus recycling of waste of polymeric materials under the ground is forbidden. Therefore the enterprises store received waste in the their territories. It creates economic losses.

Other enterprises are trying to recycle of waste polymeric materials with using different technologies.

Researches were carried out on the developed technology of processing of waste. Application of technology is limited. Process of processing is badly investigated and there is no equipment.

Scientific employees of Vitebsk state technological university have wide experience in the solution of such problems. In technologies of waste regaining are engaged for a long time. Now the problem of implementation of technologies involved in recycling innovation Republican Unitary Enterprise «Scientific and Technological Park of the Vitebsk State Technological University».

Large amounts of waste of wide range appear as a result of manufacturing of semi-finished products for footwear and of footwear itself. The distinguishing feature of those waste products is their composite structure and great deal of thermoplastic and polymeric materials. The feature mentioned is the obstacle for most recycling technologies as polymeric materials should be removed out of the mixture. On the other hand, polymeric material enables us to use the technologies of thermal- mechanical recycling based on the simultaneous effect of temperature and deformation on crumbled-up waste.

Two main directions are distinguished when conducting the technologies of waste processing:

The first direction is waste processing with an output, which may be used directly in footwear or attendant manufacture.

In such a way it is possible to process:

  • waste of imitation and synthetic leathers used for shoe uppers production;
  • waste of foamed polyurethane used in soles production;
  • waste of under-toe and sock cardboard as well as other materials.

Main types of the output:

  • materials used for soles production;
  • materials used for footwear repair;
  • granulated material used for the production of various items.

The second direction is processing with an output, which can be used as an adequate substitute for the bought materials and semi-finished products.

In this case, any waste consisting of thermoplastics can be processed.

During the processing which is conducted on screw-extruders thermoplastics are cut and plasticized, mixed with other components and thermoplastic composition material is made.

The composition obtained can undergo any type of processing which are applied to thermoplastic materials, e.g. granulation, rolling, extrusion, and high-pressure casting.

In the same way it is possible to obtain:

  • heel inserts for bottom part of shoes;
  • leather-like materials for inner sole units
  • heels and soles for different types of footwear.

waste f1

Figure 1 – The general scheme for processing of footwear production waste

The technology of joint processing of waste PUR and tanning waste is known. The technology is carried out on screw extruder with a special design. Result of processing is the product which can be disposed in the bottom of footwear. This product is consist of fine slices of the crushed waste of natural leather and polyurethane compositions. Polymer connects particles of a leather and allows product to keep the form. The product represents a parallelepiped with such dimensions: width of 50-60 mm, thickness of 5-30 mm and length of 50-100 mm. Dimensions depend on the sizes of the sole of footwear. Application of this product allows to solve some problems simultaneously.

The most important problem consists in processing waste of natural tanning materials and PUR. The second solved problem is connected to economy of foam-PUR compositions. The third accompanying problem is consequence of reduction of volume of a polymeric composition. As a result it is faster polymerizing and productivity grows. Due to the specified advantages the technology of processing brings the big economic benefit.

All the technologies mentioned are based on the method of thermal-mechanical recycling of thermoplastic waste.

The most optimal equipment for conducting thermo-mechanical recycling is a screw-extruder.

The effectiveness of the equipment is determined by the amount of waste generated and the conditions of manufacture.

The equipment is worked out and made according to the demands to the quality characteristics of the obtained materials and their further application.

The using of these technologies can reduce costs expenses of the enterprise, related to recycling of waste of polymeric materials. This has implications for reducing the cost of manufacturing. Similarly, this effect on improving the environmental situation around the enterprise and country.

 


 

From Belarusian-German seminar «Scientific and technical cooperation and technology
transfer in the sphere of power efficiency and waste processing», December 10-12, 2012, Minsk.

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